It also examined why this practice is occurring and gave reasons for it. It asserts that the practice is used generally in countries where women are considered second class citizens. This bibliography explores the need to treat women who are threatened with genital mutilation as refugees. In Africa, this procedure is usually performed when the female is a child. No HTML skills required.

The author notes that some African women are offended by the stance that the Western World has taken. This book also provided much information about the amount of women who are subjected to female genital mutilation. The author gives the example of a woman’s hotline in Beijing that deals with concerns of sexual harassment by encouraging the woman to “give in if they want to get ahead. The author examines the effectiveness of laws banning female genital mutilation in the context of the British law. If a woman has a child, she is often deinfibulated, to allow the child to pass. There are two main categories of female genital mutilation, clitoridectomy, and infibulation.

This exemplifies the low value placed on the life of women.

Female Genital Mutilation

The author examines the effectiveness of laws banning female genital mutilation in the context of the British law. However, the author notes that the way female genital mutilation in viewed has an effect on the treatment is given in asylum law.

Kelson, “The Courage bibliogrraphy Blaspheme”: Make a free website with Yola.

annotated bibliography on fgm

This article examines the “nature, extent and consequences of [female genital mutilation]. Further, it is noted that the practice of genital mutilation was used in the United States to treat female disorders. The author notes that depending on the culture, the timing of these procedures varies. This practice is often deeply rooted in the culture bibliographyy societies.


annotated bibliography on fgm

Countless women and children from these countries undergo these procedures and suffer the consequences in the long run. Finally, the author speaks about the practice of female genital mutilation on American soil.

annotated bibliography on fgm

It also provides information on the fact bibliovraphy action needs to be taken against this practice so it can be eliminated. Most countries have enacted legislation to criminalize the procedure. It concentrates on the practice of genital mutilation in Africa. The author discusses the problem encountered by countries when immigrants from countries that practice female genital mutilation move into countries that do not.

Therefore, some believe that criminalizing it would violate the freedom of religion clause of the Constitution.

Female Genital Mutilation

He describes the practice of female circumcision as discrimination. The procedures are used as a means of controlling the sexuality of female populations. Infibulation virtually ensures that the woman is a virgin, because the opening left is only so large as to allow the passage of urine and menstrual blood. The response of African women is also explored in this article.

Doctor Toubia argues that physicians should not perform reinfibulation on women because it is physically harmful. Women’s Low Status fg, Power. This article explores many of the aspects of female genital mutilation. The author explains that this tradition is still practiced because it is embedded deep into many cultures and is seen as socially acceptable. It explains the differences between the agendas of the Western feminist and African feminist.


Women’s Rights as Human Rights. This article, is actually an essay examining the practice of female genital mutilation in two context, through the actual practice of the procedure, including the reasons advanced for its necessity, and through Alice Walker’s novel, Possessing the Secret of Joy.

However, fgn WHO estimates ffm 85 to million girls and women worldwide have been subjected to some form of genital excision. The United States has not.

This article was good to get a background on the actual procedures used to circumcise women. If a woman is widowed, divorced, or even temporarily separated from her husband, she is often reinfibulated to ensure that she does not engage in sexual intercourse with someone she is not married to.

Next there is an examination of the United Kingdom’s approach to prohibiting genital mutilation. She notes that while the Western cultures view this practice as a form of oppression, not all the women biblioography deal with it on a daily basis see it as so. The mother, Oluloro’s, genitals were mutilated when she was four years old.

Finally the United States is providing financial support to organizations in Africa that are trying to end the practice of female genital mutilation.

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